Technology Terminology

There will be various technology related terms used on my website and in my research. This page provides a list of definitions to create some common language.

Digital Citizenship

Digital citizenship includes norms of behavior and practice with an “ability to practice and advocate online behavior that demonstrates legal, ethical, safe, and responsible uses of information and communication technologies” (Greenhow & Ribble, 2009, p. 125). There are nine digital citizen competencies, which include digital etiquette, digital communication, digital access, digital literacy, digital commerce, digital law, digital rights and responsibilities, digital health and wellness, and digital security (Baily, Ribble, & Ross, 2004).

Digital Identity

The term digital identity is not a developmental term, rather than the presentation one uses online. This behavior was known in the research as self-presentation, defined as “the conscious or unconscious process by which people try to influence the perception of their image, typically through social interactions” (Junco, 2014, p. 111). The identities and personas an individual constructs through social and digital media and co-constructs with others who consuming them. Digital identities may possess digital reputations, or reputations that arise from how others view these digital identities (Brown, 2016).

Digital Literacy

Digital literacy was initially defined by Martin in 2005 as,

…the awareness, attitude and ability of individuals to appropriately use digital tools and facilities to identify, access, manage, integrate, evaluate, analyzed and synthesize digital resources, construct new knowledge, create media expressions, and communicate with others, in the context of specific life situations, in order to enable constructive social action; and to reflect upon this process. (p. 135)

Ng (2012) claimed that there is an intersection of technical (online interfaces, applications, downloading), cognitive (critically thinking), and social-emotional (netiquette, safety, responding to negativity) dimensions in digital literacy (2012).

Digital Leadership

In the field of K-12 education, one source proposes that, “Digital leadership focuses on a consistent pursuit of innovation, effective integration of technology, quality of professional development, transparency, celebration of success from which others may learn, establishment of relationships with stakeholders, an open mind, and anticipation of continued change” (Sheninger, 2014, p. 23). In higher education, Ahlquist (2016) created a digital leadership framework based upon a holistic digital identity, including prioritizing relationships, strategic communications, leadership philosophy, and embracing change.

Digital Technology

An associated electronic infrastructure of access and transport: a public framework for transmission, exchange and participation (Cabellon, 2016). Arguably, the technology of the digital, in this sense of its mechanism for access, is one starting point for a deeper consideration of digital artifacts as cultural phenomena.(Crook, 2013, p. 27).

Social Media

“Social Media is the arena where users can engage in the creation and development of content and gather online to share knowledge, information, opinions using web-based applications, and tools” (Grover & Stewart, 2010, p. 9). Haelien and Kaplan (2010) also acknowledged the power that users have, defining social media specifically as “a group of internet-based applications that build on the ideological and technological foundations of Web 2.0 and that allow the creation and exchange of User Generated Content (UGC)” (p. 61). Constantinides and Zinck (2011) added to this definition, including peer-peer communication through UGC.

Social Networking Site

Early researchers Ellison et al. (2007) defined a SNS as:

A web based service that allow for individuals to (1) contrast a public or semi-public profile within a bounded system, (2) articulate a list of other users with whom they share a connection and (3) view and traverse their list of connections and those made by others in the system. (p. 211)

Web 2.0

In 2005, O’Reilly coined the term Web 2.0, defining it as an “active and open web architecture that enables users to participate in facilitating active learning” (p. 2). At first, these tools included methods from computer-mediated communication that were not previously available, including email, chat rooms, list serves, text messaging, and some social media tools (Birnbaum, 2013). Constantinides and Zinck (2011) referred Web 2.0 as the Internet evolution.

Please find all references used above on my reference list page.